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Penile cancer

Penile cancer or penile cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis. This occurs when normal healthy cells in the penis become malignant and begin to get out of control, forming a tumor. Ultimately, cancer can spread to other areas of the body, including the glands, other organs, and lymph nodes. Each year, approximately 1,300 cases of penile cancer are diagnosed in the United States.

What are the symptoms of penile cancer?

The first noticeable symptom of penile cancer is usually a lump, plaque, or ulcer on the penis. It may look like a small, minor bump or a large infected ulcer. In most cases, the tumor is located on the head or foreskin, and not on the trunk of the penis.

Other symptoms of penile cancer include:

  • itching
  • burning sensation
  • highlight
  • penis color change
  • penis thickening
  • bleeding
  • redness
  • irritation
  • swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin

Call your doctor right away if you experience any of these symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to increasing the chances of a positive outcome.

What are the risk factors for developing penile cancer?

Men living in Asia, Africa, and South America are at higher risk for developing penile cancer. Annually in these regions, this disease is diagnosed in approximately 10-20 people per 100,000 men.

Uncircumcised men are also more at risk for developing penile cancer. This may be due to the fact that uncircumcised men are at risk for other diseases affecting the penis, such as phimosis and smegma. Phimosis is a disease in which the foreskin becomes dense and is difficult to stretch. Men with phimosis have a high risk of smegma. Smegma is a substance that forms when dead skin cells, moisture and fat gather under the foreskin. It can also form when uncircumcised men do not properly wash the area under the foreskin.

Men are also at increased risk of developing penile cancer if:

  • they are over 60 years old
  • They are smoking
  • do not monitor personal hygiene
  • live in a region with poor hygiene
  • have several sexual partners
  • have a sexually transmitted infection such as human papillomavirus (HPV)

How is penile cancer diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose penile cancer by performing a physical examination and referring you for specific diagnostic tests.

During a physical examination, your doctor will examine your penis and check for any lumps, plaques, or ulcers. If cancer is suspected, your doctor will likely want to have a biopsy. A biopsy consists of taking a small sample of skin or tissue from the penis. The sample is then examined to determine if cancer cells are present.

If the biopsy results show signs of cancer, your doctor may want to do a cystoscopy to see if the cancer has spread. Cystoscopy is a procedure that is performed using an instrument called a cystoscope. The cystoscope is a thin tube with a small camera and light at the end. During cystoscopy, your doctor carefully inserts a cystoscope into the opening of the penis and passes it through the bladder. This allows your doctor to look at various areas of the penis and its surrounding structures, allowing you to determine if the cancer has spread.

In some cases, an MRI of the penis is sometimes performed to ensure that the cancer has not spread to the deeper tissues of the penis.

Reasons for development

Despite years of cancer research, the exact reasons why penile cancer can occur have not yet been identified.

But nevertheless, the opinions of scientists agree that the factors contributing to the development of oncology of the penis are the presence of bad habits in a person and non-observance of personal hygiene.

The pathogenic causes of the appearance of neoplasms on the genitals in men are also distinguished:

  • inflammation of the foreskin or glans,
  • the presence of phimosis,
  • Bowen's disease
  • skin horn
  • leukoplakia,
  • HIV infection
  • the formation of genital infections,
  • a chaotic way of having sex or its absence,
  • human papillomavirus (HPV),
  • mechanical damage to the penis, for example, in the case of an unsuccessful operation, pinching with the fly, etc.

Statistical studies prove that the development of cancer cells is more often diagnosed in people living in adverse environmental conditions, since exposure to radiation in the air contributes to the development of malignant cancer cells. It is worth noting that the well-known tradition of circumcision can reduce the likelihood of developing cancer of the penis by seventy percent.

What does penile cancer look like?

Initially, penile cancer is characterized by the formation of a malignant tumor on the skin of the penis in the form of a small speck of pink or red. On the penis, the neoplasm is often localized directly on the head tissue, but in some cases it can also be located on other parts of the organ.

The resulting tumors are small and do not cause any discomfort in patients, since they do not hurt and do not bleed. As the disease develops, the size of the neoplasm becomes larger, it becomes denser and takes on the appearance of a tubercle. With damage to the lymphatic system, an increase in inguinal lymph nodes is observed.

Over time, when the cancer reaches a developed stage, the patient begins to feel pain, itching and bleeding may occur.

With lesions of the foreskin, purulent discharge with a pungent odor is observed, as well as an increase in lymph nodes.

The outcome of the disease, first of all, depends on timely diagnosis and adequate treatment, therefore, if such neoplasms occur, a medical examination should be mandatory.

The causes and symptoms of cancer of the reproductive male organ largely depend on the form of the disease. In medicine, penile tumors are classified in the following forms:

  • nodular - under the skin of the penis appears a round neoplasm with a smooth surface that does not cause pain,
  • ulcerative - small ulcers appear on the head of the penis or foreskin, palpating which causes pain, and in case of injury, they can bleed,
  • papillary - looks like a branch of cauliflower,
  • edematous - a small knot is formed on the penis, accompanied by swelling of the genital organ and phimosis of the foreskin.

When cancer of the glans penis or its other parts occurs, therapy depends on the form of the disease. The most common is RCC carcinoma, therefore, during diagnosis, the symptoms with a suspicion of this disease are first studied.

Definition of the disease. Causes of the disease

Penile Cancer (Penis Cancer) - This is a rare form of a tumor that forms in the tissues of the penis. This disease accounts for 1-2% of all neoplasms of the genitourinary system.

Much more often, cancer of the penis occurs in men living in countries with a hot climate: South America, Asia and Africa. In Russia in 2017, 667 cases of this disease were registered, in the USA in 2018 - 2080 cases, and 410 people died of this form of cancer. In the UK, up to 600 new cases of penile cancer are reported annually.

One of the highest incidence rates in the world is observed in Brazil. There, penile cancer accounts for 2.1% of all male neoplasms in the country, reaching 5.7% in the northeast.

The lowest incidence rate is in Israel. This is due to the high frequency of circumcision in the newborn and a well-developed healthcare system.

The peak incidence of penile cancer is in men 60-64 years old.

Unfortunately, the exact reason for the development of this type of cancer has not been established, but several risk factors are known:

  • elderly age,
  • poor penile hygiene
  • smoking tobacco (cigarettes),
  • human papillomavirus type 16 and 18,
  • uncircumcised foreskin - increases the risk of developing the disease by 3.2 times,
  • chronic inflammation
  • thromboangiitis obliterans - inflammation and the formation of blood clots in the arteries,
  • Bowen's disease and Keyr erythroplasia are associated with a high risk of developing invasive penile cancer.

Precancerous diseases include:

  • skin horn
  • Bowen-like papulosis,
  • obliterating xerotic balanitis (sclerotic lichen) - chronic inflammation of the skin of the genital organs,
  • leukoplakia - damage to the mucous membrane with its subsequent keratinization.

Bowen-like papulosis is mainly found on the trunk of the penis in young circumcised men. It looks like multiple small red-violet papules, slightly raised, scaly or warty papules. Sometimes they merge into large plaques.

One of the significant risk factors is previous phimosis or narrowing of the foreskin of varying degrees with chronic inflammation. In addition, phototherapy, which is widely used in the treatment of psoriasis, affects the development of penile cancer.

Stages of penile cancer

There are six stages of a malignant tumor of the penis. The cancer stage describes how far the cancer has spread. Based on the results of the diagnostic tests, your doctor will determine what stage you are currently at. This will help them determine the best course of treatment for you and give them the opportunity to assess your prospects. The table below shows the criteria for determining the stages of penile cancer:

StagesCriteria
Stage 0
  • the cancer has not spread to any other tissues of the penis
  • cancer has spread to the connective tissue under the first layer of skin
Stage 1
  • cancer has spread to connective tissue under the skin, erectile tissue, or urethra
  • cancer has not spread to any glands, lymph nodes or other parts of the body
Stage 2
  • cancer has spread to connective tissue under the skin, erectile tissue, or urethra
  • cancer has spread to a single gland or lymph node in the groin
Stage 3a
  • cancer has spread to connective tissue under the skin, erectile tissue, or urethra
  • the cancer has spread to more than one superficial gland or lymph node in the groin area
  • the cancer has not spread to any other parts of the body
Stage 3b
  • cancer has spread to connective tissue under the skin, erectile tissue, or urethra
  • the cancer has spread to more than one superficial gland or lymph node in the groin area
  • the cancer has spread to other structures such as the prostate and pelvic bones
Stage 4
  • cancer has spread to the deep glands or lymph nodes
  • cancer has spread to other parts and organs of the body

How is penile cancer treated?

There are two main types of malignant tumors of the penis: invasive and non-invasive. Non-invasive penile cancer is a disease in which the cancer does not spread to deeper tissues, lymph nodes and glands. Penile invasive cancer is a disease in which a tumor spreads deep into the tissue of the penis and the surrounding lymph nodes and glands.

Non-invasive treatment

Some of the main treatments for non-invasive penile malignant tumors include:

  • circumcision, which is the removal of the foreskin of the penis
  • laser therapy, which uses high-frequency pulses of light to destroy tumors and cancer cells
  • chemotherapy, which is an aggressive form of chemical drug therapy that helps eliminate cancer cells in the body
  • radiation therapy, which uses high-energy radiation to reduce tumors and destroy cancer cells
  • cryosurgery, which uses liquid nitrogen to freeze tumors and remove them

Excisional surgery

Excision surgery may be performed to remove the tumor from the penis. You will be given local anesthesia, which will anesthetize this area and prevent you from feeling any pain. Your surgeon will then remove the tumor and the affected area, leaving healthy tissue and skin. The incision will be closed by suturing.

Moss operation

Moss surgery is another surgical intervention that is done to treat penile cancer. The purpose of the Moss operation is to remove as few tissues as possible, but at the same time to get rid of all the cancer cells. During the procedure, your surgeon will remove a thin layer of the affected area and then examine it under a microscope to determine if it contains cancer cells. This process is repeated until cancer cells are detected in tissue samples.

Symptoms

Typically, malignant tumors of penis cancer are characterized by slow progression, so the disease can be detected even in the early stages of development. When penile cancer occurs, the symptoms and first signs appear clearly, in the form of a tubercle, nodule, wound or sore. The preferred location is the head of the penis, but sometimes it can be the foreskin.

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The following general symptoms of penile cancer are distinguished:

  • genital organ pain
  • the occurrence of itching,
  • the appearance of edema,
  • sharp pain during urination,
  • unpleasant odor and purulent discharge,
  • general weakness of the body,
  • urethral bleeding
  • impaired bladder function,
  • a sharp decrease in total body weight,
  • hyperemia of the skin of the penis.

How strongly the symptoms are expressed depends on the stage of the course of the cancer and its form, therefore the accuracy of diagnosis and the correctness of the chosen treatment methodology are very important.

When a disease is detected at the first stages of development, conservative treatment is possible, and if the disease is neglected, surgery can no longer be dispensed with.

In some cases, the penis should be removed to preserve the patient's life.

Partial penectomy

Partial penectomy is an operation in which part of the penis is removed. This operation will be advisable only if the tumor has a diameter of less than 2 centimeters. For tumors larger than 2 centimeters, the entire penis must be removed. Complete removal of the penis is called complete penectomy.

Regardless of the type of surgery, you will need to be seen by a doctor every two to four months during the first year after surgery. If your entire penis is removed, your cancer will have to be in complete remission for at least two years before you can become a candidate for penile reconstructive surgery.

What is the long term perspective for people with penile cancer?

Many people diagnosed with penile cancer in their early stages often recover completely.In fact, the cure rate for people with tumors that do not extend to the glands or lymph nodes is between 80 and 100 percent. However, as soon as the cancer reaches the lymph nodes in the groin, the survival rate drops to less than 50 percent over a five-year period.

It is important to note that these are general statistics and your prospects may vary depending on your age and general health. The most important thing you can do to increase your chances of recovery is to adhere to the course of treatment suggested by your doctor.

The main symptoms of penile cancer

Penile cancer (photo below) initially manifested on the skin in the form a small spot that has a pink or red tint.

This spot is most often found on the head of the penis, but sometimes appears in other places, for example, anywhere along the entire length of the stem of the penis.

It does not hurt, no blood is released from it, and in general there are no specific inconveniences. But during the progression of the disease, this spot increases, spreads along the penis, becomes denser and takes the form of a tubercle.

From this moment, a painful sensation appears and skin itching is possible, there may be bleeding. If the foreskin is affected, purulent discharge with a pungent odor may also occur. Outside the penis, an increase in lymph nodes is determined. All of the above is main symptoms of penile cancer.

Also, as the cancer of the penis (photo below) develops, the following symptoms occur:

  • The appearance of pain during urination,
  • Sleep disturbance, lack of sleep,
  • General malaise and weakness throughout the body,
  • Weight loss.
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Photo of what penile cancer looks like:

Penile Cancer: Causes

As for the etiology of the development of penile cancer, it consists of many possible factors. It has long been confirmed by many medical staff that the development of this pathology due to the presence of bad habits in a man, such as smoking and drinking alcohol, as well as non-compliance with intimate hygiene.

It is noted that smoking men are generally at greater risk the formation of a malignant neoplasm in the entire urinary system. This is mainly due to the fact that products resulting from the burning of the contents of tobacco products have a carcinogenic effect.

Regarding non-compliance intimate hygiene, then this factor contributes to the accumulation of smegma and dead epidermal cells under the foreskin, which provokes irritation of the scalp and the formation of an inflammatory process. Having a permanent character, all this increases the likelihood that penile cancer (photos are presented above).

Also cause head cancer may be the presence of phimosisin which the foreskin squeezes the head.

Other diseases, such as Bowen's disease, leukoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and Keyr erythroplasia, can also be factors in the development. The reasons include a variety of sexually transmitted infections and promiscuous sexual relations in general. to contents ↑

Fighting Penile Cancer

It is important to have strong psychological support with which you can cope with any anxiety or stress that you may have. You might also want to join the cancer support group, where you can discuss your problems with other people who are familiar with your experiences. Ask your doctor about support groups in your area. You can also find information on support groups at the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society websites.

Diagnostics

If an education occurs on the penis, it is necessary to undergo a medical examination at the local GP without delay. An experienced doctor knows exactly what cancer is, what it looks like and which doctor to send to the patient after a general examination. During diagnosis, the involvement of specialists is required: a urologist, oncologist and andrologist.

In order to accurately diagnose penile cancer, its shape, stage of development and spread of metastases, the following studies are necessary:

  • ultrasound examination (ultrasound),
  • computed tomography (CT),
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
  • abdominal radiography
  • biopsy,
  • puncture.

Since the symptoms of a malignant tumor of the penis are often similar to other pathologies of the penis, cancer must be differentiated from angioma, papilloma, nevus, syphilis and a number of other diseases. A major role is played by puncture, during which the study of the fluid of the pathogenic tubercle is performed. Therapy is prescribed, based on the results of all studies and the collected history.

Treatment

If penile cancer is diagnosed in the early stages of development, the patient may be given conservative treatment, as well as radiation therapy and brachytherapy. The effectiveness of these methods is rarely justified, therefore, if the disease could not be cured after conservative therapy, the patient is prescribed surgery.

It should be noted that cancer is more often detected already during the course of the advanced stage, when the patient needs emergency treatment through surgical procedures followed by rehabilitation. Surgical treatment can be carried out in two ways:

  1. Organ-saving method - this method includes laser therapy and cryodestruction of the neoplasm, as well as scalping of the penis and circumcision. Pathological areas of the skin are excised, after which plastic surgery of the genital organ is performed.
  2. Removal of the affected organ - often the operation is partially carried out, after which the patient has sexual functions and the possibility of urination in a standing position. Complete removal of the penis is possible in case of extensive lesion and rapidly progressing pathology.

Regardless of the choice of method of operation, the patient may additionally be prescribed a course of radiation and chemical therapy to prevent relapse of the tumor.

Complications and consequences

After treatment for penile cancer with radiation and brachytherapy, complications such as urethral stricture and organ necrosis are possible. If laser therapy is prescribed, there is a risk of bleeding. The most serious consequences may occur after surgical treatment of a penile tumor:

  • narrowing of the urethra,
  • short length and insufficient elasticity of the organ,
  • complete member removal,
  • decreased sensitivity of the penis.

It all depends directly on the extent of organ damage by a malignant tumor.

Forecast and Prevention

With this disease, the five-year survival rate of patients is from seventy to one hundred percent, if the identification of a member's tumor was in the early stages. If cancer was diagnosed at the third stage of development, the number of patients with five-year survival does not exceed forty percent. For patients with fourth stage cancer of the penis, five-year survival does not exceed five percent.

The main ways to prevent the disease are a healthy lifestyle and compliance with personal hygiene. It is also important to have a reasonable sex life, excluding casual relationships, as one of the common causes of penile cancer is HIV infection.

To maintain your health, you should regularly undergo a scheduled medical examination by a urologist. Thus, it is possible to identify most diseases in the early stages of development, after which conduct optimal treatment and achieve complete recovery.

What are the forms of the disease?

Before talking about eloquent symptoms, it is worth recalling that penile cancer can have one of the diagnosed forms. In extensive medical practice, there are:

  • Knotty shapein which a smooth, round and painless neoplasm is felt under the skin of the penis.
  • Ulcerative form, where a small sore appears on the foreskin or head of the penis, which is painful on palpation and may slightly bleed when injured.
  • Papillary cancer in its shape and external shape resembles a sprig of cauliflower.
  • Edematous form accompanied by a small nodule on the penis, which provokes swelling of the genital organ.
  • In modern medicine emit four stages of penile cancerwhere the determining factor is the presence of metastases. So:

    1. In the first stage, cancer cells appear that extend exclusively to the skin of the penis.
    2. In the second stage, a malignant tumor grows in the cavernous body of the penis, increasing its size and making it compacted even without an erection.

  • In the third stage, the disease penetrates the walls of the urethra or prostate gland, spreads to the lymph nodes.
  • The last stage of the disease leaves the borders of the penis and directs metastases to neighboring organs, the vital systems of the male body.
  • Having studied this classification, the conclusion suggests itself: it is desirable to diagnose the disease at an early stageuntil the effect of metastasis has spread to the entire body. As you know, in neglected clinical pictures, the patient may even die unexpectedly.

    Penile cancer: symptoms and signs of penile cancer, causes of penile oncology, treatment

    The penis, or penis, is an organ of the male urogenital system. It has a dual function: in the thickness of the penis, the urethra passes through which urine and semen are excreted. Anatomically, the following parts are distinguished in the penis:

    • A body that starts from the body and passes in front of the head.
    • The head is the end of the penis, covered with thin sensitive skin.
    • The foreskin is a fold of skin that runs transversely in a circle and protects the head.
    • Bridle - a fold of skin that runs from below under the head in the longitudinal direction and connects it to the skin.

    Inside the penis are two cavernous body - during intercourse, they are filled with blood and provide an erection - and one spongy body - the urethra passes through it.

    Does penile cancer happen? Penile cancer refers to malignant tumors that develop from the skin covering it. They are rare. According to American and European statistics, annually, one of 100,000 men is diagnosed with penile cancer, it makes up 1% of all oncological diseases in men.

    How often is penile cancer

    Based on existing statistics, we can confidently say that penile cancer (symptoms described above) belongs to the category of rare oncological diseases.

    In European countries, the frequency of occurrence of this pathology 1 to 100 thousand. In percentage terms, cancer relative to other oncological pathologies of the urinary system in men occurs in 2-4% of cases.

    Most often, this disease is observed in those men whose age exceeds 60 years, but there were cases of an earlier development of pathology, even several cases of penile cancer in children.

    As for the detection of this pathology, in 30% of cases it is detected during the progression stage, when the tumor already extends beyond the borders of the penis. And in 10% of men who were diagnosed with a locally advanced form of cancer, the appearance of metastases is noted. to contents ↑

    History of the disease

    The reasons that indicate the development of a cancer of the penis are unknown. There are several suggestions that may have the basis for the development of oncology. Doctors explain the development of cancer primarily by non-observance of personal hygiene.

    Smegma, which accumulates in the folds of organ tissues (in the prepuce sac), has a carcinogenic effect. Patients with congenital phimosis are most susceptible to such an accumulation, as a result of which a favorable environment is created for the accumulation of carcinogenic fluid.

    Forms

    There are several forms of penile cancer:

    • Ulcerative
    • Nodal or infiltrative
    • Papillary
    • Edematous.

    Ulcerative form characterized by very rapid growth, accompanied by destruction of surrounding tissues. Tumor cells in this case penetrate into the cavernous bodies and quickly spread through the regional lymph nodes.

    In case of nodal form superficial tumor growth of an infiltrative nature is observed. The course of the disease is slow.

    At papillary form most often there is a favorable development of the disease, which helps to calmly help the patient. The course of this cancer is long, and metastases appear late.

    Edematous form refers to the rarest of all listed. It is characterized by extremely rapid growth, the early appearance of metastases in the lymph nodes and distant organs. to contents ↑

    Penile cancer pathogenesis

    The trigger for developing penile cancer is a chronic inflammatory condition. They develop due to prolonged irritation of the skin of the prepuce sac - folds of the foreskin - by the decay products of bacterial epithelial cells. In this case, smegma - the natural white discharge between the head and foreskin - is not a carcinogen.

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis in the early stages of development is a slowly growing tumor. Since it rarely interferes with urination or erectile function, patients do not complain for a long time until the pain syndrome joins and cancerous ulceration appears on the skin of the penis. At this point, the cancer usually passes from the surface to the invasive (penetrating) form.

    The development of the tumor occurs both through direct molecular changes, and through precancerous lesions, which later undergo a malignant transformation.

    A recent study confirmed the association between obesity and the risk of invasive penile cancer. So, the risk of developing the disease increases by 53% with an increase in body mass index by five units.

    A significant role in the development of the disease has a marital status. This was confirmed in another population-based study, which showed that the prevalence of penile cancer among married men is lower compared to single men. Marital status is also an independent predictor of mortality in men with penile cancer.

    The presence of papillomavirus condylomas is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of developing penile cancer. The carcinogenic mechanism of exposure to human papillomavirus is due to the fact that viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 inactivate suppressor genes p53 and pRbthat inhibit the appearance of malignant tumor cells.

    A number of studies evaluating the prevalence of human papillomavirus among patients with penile cancer have shown that 48% of the evaluated tumors tested positive for human papillomavirus.

    In recent years, vaccination against human papillomavirus among girls has become widespread. This has led to success in the fight against malignant tumors associated with this virus in women in Western countries. However, the epidemiological consequences of such vaccinations have yet to be assessed. Modern research has begun to study the effectiveness of using this type of vaccination in boys for the prevention of penile cancer and other diseases.

    Penile cancer is not related to HIV or AIDS.However, immunosuppressive therapy (suppression of immunity), carried out during organ transplantation, in the treatment of HIV infection or AIDS, significantly increases the risk of developing penile cancer.

    Classification and stages of development of penile cancer

    Most often, malignant tumors of the penis are squamous cell carcinoma. This aggressive tumor is characterized by early metastasis.

    The second most common type, accounting for approximately 10% of cases, is a very aggressive basaloid type of penile cancer.

    Cancer types such as verrucous (reminiscent of a wart), sarcomatous and adenosquamous cancer are rare. They metastasize only in exceptional cases and have a much better prognosis.

    Penile mesenchymal tumors are even less common in clinical practice. Their frequency does not exceed 3%. Such formations include Kaposi's sarcoma, angiosarcoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the penis. The scientific literature describes cases of metastasis of malignant tumors (bladder, prostate, kidney and rectum) in the penis.

    According to the nature of the growth of a malignant tumor of the penis, the disease is divided into three types:

    • surface,
    • nodal or with vertical growth,
    • Verrucous (most benign).

    According to the localization, ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases) identifies five types of penile cancer:

    • C60.0 - malignant tumor of the foreskin of the penis,
    • C60.1 - malignant tumor of the glans penis,
    • C60.2 - malignant tumor of the body of the penis,
    • C60.8 - malignant tumor of the penis, beyond the above localizations,
    • C60.9 - malignant tumor of the penis, unspecified localization.

    Penile cancer stages are presented in the 2009 TNM classification. T indicates in it the prevalence of the primary tumor, and N indicates the process of metastasis in the lymph nodes.

    CategoryClinical picturePathomorphological picture
    TisPreinvasive Cancer - The Initial Stage of Cancer
    TaNon-invasive Verrucous carcinoma - tumor without invasion with destruction
    T1Subepithelial connective tissue invasion
    ⠀ • ⠀ without the penetration of cancer cells into blood vessels and lymph flow - T1G1-2
    ⠀ • ⠀ with lymphatic vascular invasion - T1G 3-4
    T2Invasion of the cavernous and / or spongy body of the urethra
    T3Urethral invasion
    T4Invasion of the prostate and other organs
    N1Palpable movable
    unilateral inguinal lymph nodes
    Intranodal metastasis in one inguinal
    lymph node
    N2Palpable movable
    multiple or bilateral
    inguinal lymph nodes
    More than one or bilateral
    metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes
    N3Fixed inguinal
    or pelvic lymph nodes,
    unilateral or bilateral
    Pelvic metastases
    or extracapsular extension

    The anatomical features of the penis and the presence of a cross of lymphatic vessels in the area of ​​the root of the penis contribute to the formation of cross metastasis, i.e., the spread of the tumor on the opposite side.

    Cross metastasis occurs in 81% of patients. Therefore, with an increase in lymph nodes on the one hand, there is a high probability of the presence of cancer cells in unexplained lymph nodes on the opposite side.

    Metastasis occurs in stages: first to the inguinal, and then to the pelvic lymph nodes. Palpable metastases occur in 50% of patients with penile cancer. Moreover, only in 50% of cases tumor cells are found in them. In other patients, the lymph nodes are enlarged due to inguinal lymphadenitis, caused by an infectious and inflammatory process that has joined an external tumor of the penis.

    Enlarged lymph nodes do not always indicate metastasis in the same way as un enlarged lymph nodes indicate their cancerous lesion. Remote metastasis of penile cancer is extremely rare.

    Prevalence and relevance

    Penile cancer has a low prevalence of: among oncological diseases occurs in no more than 4% of cases. Despite the infrequent manifestations of the disease, its significance cannot be underestimated. Oncological diseases are fatal in case of untimely detection.

    In addition, the presence of a malignant tumor of the penis leads to problems that impede the normal functioning of the urogenital system of men.

    Risk factors

    Predisposing factors for the disease are the following indicators:

    • phimosis. In 25% of cases of development of cancer of the penis, the presence of phimosis was the root cause of malignancy,
    • papilloma virus
    • skin horn. It is the result of an injury, nevus of an organ, an injured mole,
    • erythroplasia of Keira. The formation of a reddened area with clear contours on the head of the organ or on the skin of the foreskin,
    • sclerosing lichen. Penis inflammation,
    • Bowen's disease. It is determined by the presence of a red plaque on the organ,
    • chronic inflammatory processes in the genital organ.

    Important! Inadequate hygiene can trigger penile cancer.

    Smoking patients are more likely to experience oncology than non-smokers.

    Causes and consequences

    The reasons leading to the development of malignancy:

    • photochemotherapy. With this procedure, exposure to the skin with ultraviolet rays is carried out in conjunction with the use of herbal creams. The procedure is performed in the presence of skin pathologies of vitiligo and psoriasis,
    • early active sex life with a constant change of partners,
    • infections that are transmitted through the genital canals during sexual intercourse,
    • the presence of papillomas,
    • smoking (toxic substances inhaled by smoking affect the cells of the body and immunity)
    • the presence of genital warts (viral warts),
    • stagnation of smegma in the bosom of the prepuce sac.

    Video: "Penile cancer - what are these and what are the treatments?"

    What are the symptoms of the disease?

    Usually, malignant tumors in the body progress very slowly, and penile cancer is no exception. If the disease is detected at an early stage, it can be completely cured and, thanks to the recommended prevention, no longer be afraid of complications and tragic health consequences.

    If you carefully monitor the hygiene of the genital organs, then the first symptoms of cancer can be detected even at an early stage, when a tubercle, nodule, sore, papilloma or wound appears on the penis. Most often, such a neoplasm is located on the glans penis, less often - in the foreskin.

    Among the additional symptoms, the following anomalies can be distinguished:

    • acute pain syndrome,
    • cutaneous itching,
    • increased swelling,
    • painful urination,
    • fetid discharge from pustules,
    • an increase in inguinal lymph nodes,
    • chronic lack of sleep and malaise,
    • bleeding from a tumor
    • urinary system dysfunction,
    • weakness,
    • weight loss,
    • hyperemia of the skin of the penis.

    The severity of such symptoms depends entirely on the stage and form of the disease, so a timely response to the program and well-chosen treatment are very important. Doctors say that penile cancer of the first two degrees lends itself to successful conservative treatment, and in advanced clinical pictures, surgery is required (not always successful and without complications).

    Read all about the causes of lung cancer and how to protect yourself from this terrible disease.

    And here you can find out a lot of useful information about the symptoms of bladder cancer.

    Classification, stages of penile cancer

    In 95% of cases, the tumor is represented squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, or squamous cell carcinoma. Usually it grows slowly, it is often diagnosed in the early stages and successfully treated. A malignant neoplasm can be on any part of the penis, most often there is squamous cell carcinoma of the head of the penis and foreskin.

    Are much less common warty carcinomas, or Bushke-Lovenstein tumors. Outwardly, they resemble large warts. Such cancer also grows slowly, can reach large sizes, grow deep into neighboring tissues, but rarely spreads to other parts of the body.

    On the skin of the penis, as elsewhere, are found melanomas. This localization is not very characteristic, since more often melanoma appears on areas of the skin exposed to sunlight. This is an aggressive tumor, it metastases early and often has a poor prognosis.

    Another slowly growing and very rare type of penile skin cancer is basal cell carcinoma, or basal cell carcinoma. Very rarely on the skin of the penis are adenocarcinomas - malignant tumors from sweat gland cells.

    Depending on the size of the main tumor (T), the spread of cells to nearby lymph nodes (N) and the presence of distant metastases (M), the following stages of penile cancer are distinguished:

    • Stage 0: a tumor that is located in the surface layers of the skin and does not extend deeper. This is the so-called "cancer in place."
    • Stage I: the tumor has grown into the skin somewhat stronger, but so far does not grow into neighboring tissues.
    • Stage II: a tumor that has grown in the blood, lymph vessels, spongy, cavernous bodies, or in the urethra, or cancer cells have a low degree of differentiation and have completely lost their resemblance to normal ones.
    • Stage III: the tumor does not grow outside the penis, and the tumor cells have managed to spread to one (substage IIIA) or more (substage IIIB) lymph nodes in the groin.
    • Stage IV: the tumor has grown into the scrotum, prostate, pubic bones, or the cancer cells have spread to the inguinal lymph nodes and sprouted from them into the surrounding tissues, or there are distant metastases.

    Preparations

    Malignant formations with the help of drugs are treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy involves the use of strong chemicals that destroy and inhibit the development of malignant cells.

    These include:

    • alkylating cytostatics,
    • antimetabolites
    • herbal preparations
    • antibiotics.

    In addition, hormonal drugs, antihormones that inhibit the development of tumors are used in complex treatment.

    Penile Cancer Complications

    Most often, with penile cancer, local complications develop - infection, purulent-necrotic inflammation (phlegmon), bleeding from a primary tumor, urethral fistula, and sepsis. In some cases, with the disease, lymphedema or lymphostasis occurs - leg swelling due to impaired lymphatic outflow. If penile cancer is not treated, then self-amputation can occur.

    It should be noted that both the development of penal cancer and the consequences of the treatment have a significant impact on the quality of life of men. Firstly, his sexual function suffers, secondly, a violation of the act of urination is possible, and thirdly, the cosmetic appearance worsens. All this destructively affects the moral state of the patient. Therefore, the psychological support of family members is extremely important.

    Conservative treatment

    Conservative treatment methods include:

    It is applied at the initial stages of development of education.

    The method involves maintaining the function of the penis. This method is characterized by frequent manifestations of relapse.

    Used in the local distribution of foci of cancer.

    Laser therapy, like radiation, is characterized by the likelihood of a relapse.

    The use of cold in the treatment of cancerous tumors.

    May lead to good results in the absence of metastases.

    Causes and risk factors for penile cancer

    The exact causes of penile cancer are unknown, but doctors and scientists are aware of some risk factors:

    • Human papillomavirus. The causative agent is sexually transmitted; many people are currently infected. There are more than a hundred types of HPV. Among them, only a few are dangerous. In women, they increase the risk of cancer of the vagina and cervix, in men, the risk of cancer of the penis (viruses type 16 and 18 are found in patients).
    • Promiscuous sexual intercourse. Apparently, this factor is directly related to human papillomavirus infection. Studies show that in men who have two or more sexual partners under the age of 20, the risks are increased 4–5 times.
    • Age. The disease mainly occurs in men who are over 50. Until the age of 40, the development of penile cancer is extremely unlikely.
    • Smoking. Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens that penetrate the bloodstream and can cause mutations in the DNA of cells of any organs. In addition, smokers have worse local protection mechanisms, so they are more likely to get HPV.
    • Immunodeficiency conditions. The immune system destroys not only pathogenic viruses and bacteria, but also defective ones, including cancer cells. If the immune system does not work well, the risk of any cancer is increased.
    • Phimosis. This is a condition in which the foreskin narrows and prevents the head of the penis from being exposed. According to statistics, men with phimosis are more often diagnosed with penile cancer.

    If a man has any risk factors from this list, this does not mean that he will definitely have a malignant tumor. At the same time, sometimes the disease is diagnosed in men who do not have a single risk factor.

    Surgery

    Surgery to remove a malignant tumor may include partial removal of tumor cells or radical removal of the penis.

    Organ-preserving operation

    While maintaining the penis, partial damage to the head or foreskin is possible. It is possible to scalp the penis, then plastic is produced from tissues that are taken from the scrotum.

    Organ preservation operations are not always effective: the frequency of relapses can cause the removal of the genital organ (partial or complete).

    Partial or total organ removal

    Penile removal (penectomy) can be partial or complete. With partial removal of the penis, its ability to urinate can be maintained, sometimes the ability to sexual sensitivity is preserved.

    When the genital organ is completely amputated, a perineal urethrostomy is applied to urinate. Phalloplasty can help restore the penis.

    Diet

    Proper nutrition in the development of a malignant tumor is of great importance.

    Maintain and strengthen the body will help:

    • soy products
    • green peas, green beans
    • mushrooms
    • boiled white meat,
    • sea ​​fish (better in boiled form),
    • fish oil capsules,
    • vegetables and fruits,
    • pomegranate juice,
    • honey,
    • muscatel,
    • green tea.

    It is advisable to exclude cheese, egg yolk, sugar, animal fats, baked potatoes, muffins, coffee. Bad habits - smoking and alcohol - are strictly contraindicated.

    Penile Cancer Surgery

    Surgical removal of the tumor is the main treatment for penile cancer and can be used at almost any stage. If the cancer is within the foreskin, circumcision is performed.

    If the tumor is small and does not have time to germinate deeply, it is removed with a small amount of surrounding healthy tissue.

    Such interventions are organ-preserving, after them all the functions of the penis are preserved.

    With large, deeply germinating tumors, it is necessary to remove part of the penis or the entire organ. The consequences of such operations with penile cancer: a violation of the appearance of the genital organs and the ability to have sexual intercourse, psychological discomfort.

    When removing the entire penis, the doctor forms a new hole in the perineum for the outflow of urine. After surgery, a man can still control the process of urination, but urine from now on will have to be seated. Sometimes, along with the penis, you have to remove the scrotum and testicles, that is, perform castration.

    Surgical intervention may be supplemented by removal of the lymph nodes in the groin area. Previously, such operations were performed more often and to a greater extent, since the surgeon could not know for sure how many nodes were affected by cancer cells. Many men have a complication - lymphedemaswelling of the legs due to impaired lymphatic outflow.

    There is currently a study that can be done right during the operation - sentinel biopsy, or sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    The surgeon injects a special dye into the tumor, and looks at which lymph node he enters in the first place. This lymph node is called sentinel. It is removed and examined for the presence of cancer cells.

    Depending on the result, they decide on the need to remove other lymph nodes.

    Thanks to a Sentinel biopsy, surgeons only remove the inguinal lymph nodes when it is actually needed.

    Chemotherapy

    Chemotherapy for cancer of the penis is resorted to before surgery to reduce the size of the tumor, after surgery to prevent relapse, with metastatic cancer.

    Used drugs: capecitabine, mitomycin C, ifosfamide, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin. Usually a combination of 2-3 drugs is used. Treatment is carried out in cycles: after each administration of the drug, a break of several days follows.

    Cycles can last 3-4 weeks, the general course of treatment includes several cycles.

    Find out the exact cost of treatment

    Radiation therapy

    Radiation therapy can be chosen as an alternative to surgical treatment in the early stages of penile cancer. It is also used for damage to the lymph nodes, in the later stages with inoperable and metastatic tumors.

    Radiation therapy can be carried out in two different ways:

    • Exposure of the penis from external sources.
    • Brachytherapy: miniature radiation sources are placed inside or around the penis.

    Rehabilitation after treatment of penile cancer. The consequences and possible complications of penile skin cancer

    After local removal of the tumor and removal of the glans penis, many men retain the ability to lead a full sexual life. Surveys have shown that in about half of cases after partial removal of the penis, men can experience an erection and have sex. After removal of the entire organ, sexual contact in the traditional way becomes impossible.

    After removal of the inguinal lymph nodes, lymph outflow from the lower extremities is disturbed, as a result, edema - lymphedema develops. This complication may develop years after treatment. The doctor will give recommendations that will help reduce risks.

    Survival forecast

    The prognosis for cancer of the penis depends on whether the tumor has managed to spread to the lymph nodes and give metastases. Five-year survival is:

    • If cancer cells have not spread to the lymph nodes: 90%.
    • If the tumor cells have spread to the lymph nodes: 35–75%, depending on the number of affected lymph nodes.
    • If there is distant metastases: 0–11%.

    Penile Cancer Prevention

    The likelihood of developing the disease decreases sharply after circumcision (in the medical language - circumcisio) - an operation during which the foreskin is removed. In circumcised men, squamous cell carcinoma of the penis practically does not occur. Other preventative measures:

    • Careful personal hygiene.
    • To give up smoking.
    • Avoiding promiscuous intercourse and using condoms: this reduces the risk of contracting HIV and HPV.

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    Penile Cancer: Signs and Symptoms

    Among the “male” dangerous diseases, doctors often encounter oncological changes that are difficult to treat, and also affect the reproductive system, cause erectile dysfunction and significant discomfort. In the article we will talk about cancer of the glans penis, show a photo of the disease, explain the basics of diagnosis and treatment methods.

    Disease Information, Statistics

    The resulting malignant neoplasm affects the tissues of the genital organ in a man, provokes the active development of metastases.

    Its presence is diagnosed only in 1,500 people per year throughout the extensive global cancer practice.

    Most patients go to the doctor already at an advanced stage, when metastasis began, that is, when the cells began to spread throughout the body - this can lead to death.

    Complaints are usually accepted by urologists or andrologists, they can already give direction to an oncologist. Among all cases of oncology of the genitourinary male system, a neoplasm of the glans penis accounts for no more than 2-4 percent.

    In this case, usually mature guys and older people get sick, for children this ailment is rare. Most often, the patient is from 40-60 years old.

    Metastasis develops already at the first stage of the disease, therefore, in 90% of cases of a fixed disease, metastases already begin to appear at the first visit to a doctor.

    Causes of Penis Cancer

    An exact dependence on a specific factor of the formation of cancer cells has not been identified, but there is a predisposition, which is recorded in many cases - these are stressful situations, improper hygiene, genetic characteristics, as well as bad habits. This is what experts recommend to watch out for.

    At risk are men with the following characteristics of the body and ailments:

    • Phimosis, that is, the impossibility or difficulty of exposing the head. This often leads to the development of bacteria in the cavity under the foreskin. Such a defect may be congenital, or it may be the result of certain diseases during which swelling of the mucosa occurred. Circumcision, which is either traditional in a number of cultures or recommended as hygiene, reduces the likelihood of oncology by 70%.
    • Inflammatory process. Some pathological conditions lead to inflammation - the tissues of the penis swell, swell, blush and irritate. The drug "Prostatilen AC" has an anti-edematous effect in the prostate gland, and also normalizes secretory function, which generally helps to stabilize the state of the male urogenital system and reduces the risk of the disease. HPV This diagnosis is not amenable to therapeutic treatment, but only stops. But with reduced immune defense, as well as in the acute stages of the human papillomavirus type 6, 11, 16 and 18, oncological changes can begin.
    • Thickening of the skin. It can be a nevus (a convex mole) or a poorly healed trace after an injury, which led to a scar. Dense formations contribute to friction, they irritate the delicate mucosa.
    • Sclerosing lichen is a reaction of the skin on the reproductive external organs, which resembles a ringworm, that is, a coating with crusts, small dots.
    • Keir erythroplasia is considered a precancerous disease. The lesion affects the bridle and foreskin, less often the head of the penis.
    • Bowen’s affliction. This is an intraepidermal carcinoma, its occurrence also indicates the imminent onset of a tumor on the penis.
    • HIV
    • Multiple hemorrhagic sarcomatosis is numerous small malignant neoplasms that can lead to extensive tissue damage.

    In addition to pathological conditions, the risk of oncology appears with the following factors:

    • smoking.
    • alcohol or drug abuse.
    • messy connections.
    • poor hygiene of male organs.
    • Before the onset of sexual activity, the chance of getting sick is much lower; it increases at the age of 16-18, along with STDs.

    TNM - classification

    This is an international system for distinguishing malignant neoplasms, according to its criteria they distinguish:

    • T1 - a tumor less than 2 cm in diameter with clear boundaries and edges of the affected area, with no signs of growth.
    • T2 is a formation of 2-5 cm in size, which extends to subepithelial tissues.
    • T3 - Oncology more than 5 cm wide, which grows in the cavernous body of the penis.
    • T4 - the urethra, prostate and other adjacent organs are affected.
    • N1 - a single formation of metastasis to the surface in the groin.
    • N2 - repeated damage to the upper inguinal lymph nodes from one or two sides.
    • N3 - damage to the internal lymph nodes (iliac, pelvic).
    • M0 - no metastasis.
    • M1 - metastases appear in those parts of the body that are not connected with the genitourinary system.

    According to this classification, cancer doctors determine the risk of damage, as well as treatment methods.

    Key signs of penile cancer

    The first manifestations can be seen at the very initial stage. With careful hygiene, you can feel the nodule, see a wound or seal. At first, this may seem insignificant, but with a long tracking of the defect, you will notice that it becomes larger, and the following symptoms may appear:

    • Pain. It can occur during sexual contact, during urination, as well as in the process of taking a shower. Any touch of sores can be painful.
    • Itching The bridle or the entire inguinal zone will scratch. They can also spill red dots, small seals, like depriving.
    • Difficulties in going to the toilet, especially become noticeable at stages 3-4, when metastases affect the urethra and urethra.
    • The appearance of pustules. If the sores open, then they can fester, and at the same time emit an unpleasant odor of pus. The substance may be mixed with blood.
    • The genitals (trunk of the penis, head) are swollen. This is expressed in puffiness, an increase in diameter by 3-5 mm. Also, because of this, the foreskin may not completely move away.
    • Lymph nodes in the groin become larger, when pressed, pain appears.
    • Discharge from the penis - they can remain both after sex and after urination. They are whitish in color with a yellow tint, have a viscous texture and an unpleasant odor.

    All symptoms are accompanied by general poor health - weight loss, drowsiness and lethargy, or, conversely, hyperactivity and insomnia. If metastases have already affected other internal organs, then diseases of the heart, liver, brain, and central nervous system may appear. For example, blood in the urine, tachycardia, slow perception.

    The period after treatment

    Surgical intervention dictates time limits on:

    • sports and strong physical activity,
    • sexual contact and erection.

    A few more facts that you need to know before the operation:

    • Partial penectomy can cause a decrease in the penis by 2-3 cm.
    • In 7 percent of patients, bleeding is recorded.
    • The newly formed urethra may be narrower than the real one.
    • Scar tissue may be less sensitive, so there will be problems with sexual intercourse.

    Conclusion and video

    Any diseases in the reproductive and genitourinary systems should be eliminated in a timely manner. In case of problems with the prostate gland should take a course of the drug "Prostatilen AC". The drug will quickly and effectively eliminate the inflammatory process of the prostate.

    If you have a swelling on the penis, sores or seals, then you should immediately contact a urologist. Do not delay your visit.

    Let's watch a video conversation with an oncologist:

    What to do if you suspect penis cancer

    In the event that appeared suspected member cancer (symptoms described above) appeal to the urologist becomes an urgent action. Unfortunately, questions regarding the genitals, as well as a feeling of fear or rejection of the pathology present, make many men put off going to a specialist for a long time.

    Forecast. Prevention

    Prognosis of penile cancer is associated with the presence or absence of metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes. A progressive course for this disease is the rule rather than the exception, with death occurring in most untreated patients within two years.

    The presence and extent of metastases in the lymph nodes are the most important predictors of the survival of patients with penile cancer. Patients with lymph nodes involved in the cancer process who have not undergone lymphadenectomy rarely survive for two years. Five-year survival after removal of a tumor with inguinal lymphadenectomy is 20-50%. Five-year survival is 82-88% in cases when 1-3 lymph nodes are enlarged. The overall five-year relative survival was 97% for pTis / pTa tumors, 90% for pT1, 66% for pT2, 55% for pT3, and 46% for pT4.

    With proper treatment and a limited number of lymphatic metastases, the prognosis remains good. In most cases, local relapses respond well to treatment and have a slight negative impact on the prognosis of survival.

    In case of cancer recurrence in the lymph node, the specific survival of patients worsens to below 40%. Extensive lymph node metastases can be cured only if patients respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    The prognosis for patients with systemic metastasis remains extremely poor.

    Circumcision of newborns around the world is recognized as a preventive measure that can significantly reduce the risk of developing penile cancer. It eliminates the closed pre-vocational environment in which the conditions for the development of member cancer are created. However, the number of men on the planet with circumcised foreskin remains quite low at 38%, while in the USA it reaches 81%.

    Voluntary male circumcision in developing countries is encouraged by numerous World Health Organization initiatives, as it is known to reduce male HIV transmission by 60%.

    A huge role is played by personal hygiene and medical literacy, including the person’s desire to worry about their health.

    When should penis be removed and how long

    Penis removal in the presence of a malignant neoplasm is carried out so that there is no relapse of the disease.

    This stage of treatment is one of the treatment standards. At the same time, the aesthetic goals of maintaining the maximum possible organ length do not play a role here, since this does not allow to fully achieve the purpose of the operation.

    The level of organ removal is determined in accordance with the location of the primary focus and the entire length of the penis. In the event that the neoplasm affects only the head and the distal part of the trunk, conduct partial removal of the genital 2 cm below the edge of the tumor, that is, a portion of healthy tissue is excised. to contents ↑

    Side effects of treatment

    As for radiation therapy and brachytherapy, then side effect such treatment may be the formation of local complications, strictures of the urethra and necrosis of the entire penis. A side effect of laser therapy is postoperative bleeding. But they arise only in 7% of all cases of such treatment.

    What causes penile cancer?

    One of the factors that contribute to the development of the tumor is smoking, since a greater number of patients with malignant tumors smoke people.Failure to comply with hygiene and the accumulation of bacteria in the foreskin, which constantly irritate the head of the penis, can provoke pathology. Phimosis was detected in 25% of men with oncology, thus, the risk of disease in those who did circumcision is lower. Other causes and factors for the development of tumors in the penis are:

    1. Early sex life and frequent change of partners.
    2. Papillomavirus infection. Special control should be for men with AIDS, unprotected sex, and homosexuals.
    3. Concomitant diseases: skin horn, sclerosing lichen, genital warts, Bowen's disease, leukoplakia, erythroplasia of Keyr.

    Clinical picture

    A neoplasm can appear on any part of the organ, more often on the head, as a rule, changes in the skin can be detected immediately. Later, the formations become denser and increase in size; the appearance of sores on the head or body of the organ is not ruled out. Other manifestations may be in the form of:

    • bleeding when urinating,
    • pain
    • itching
    • enlarged lymph nodes in the groin,
    • in the later stages of weakness, weight loss.

    With phimosis, external manifestations can be detected later, due to the inability to see formations on the head, pus with an unpleasant odor is later released.

    Alternative medicine

    Healers say that daily use of garlic prevents the spread of cancer cells, and after a while, completely eliminates oncology. Juice is prepared from the product and taken in the morning, before meals. Start with 10 drops, after 5 days, double the dose, so continue until the amount reaches 2 teaspoons. The course lasts 3 months.

    Oncology patients are recommended daily intake of iodine, for this you can eat sea kale, drink water containing 1 drop of solution and make breast nets. Useful decoctions of burdock and birch leaves, elderberry and dogwood, chaga. Juice therapy is effective in the treatment of oncology, drinks should be freshly squeezed, store-bought ones will not work, with a strong concentration, some are diluted with water.

    Flaxseed oil is used to cleanse the intestines of Trichomonas, it must be held in the mouth for 15 minutes, and then spit out. It is believed that parasites love the product and pass into it, after that they use medications for this purpose.

    Monastery gathering

    Many people claim that they cured oncology by using a decoction from the collection of chamomile, yarrow, marigold, thyme, motherwort, moss dried birch, birch buds, buckthorn bark, linden blossoms, string, dogrose, bearberry, immortelle, wormwood, nettle and sage. The crushed, dry mixture is taken in the amount of 6 tbsp. tablespoons and pour 2.5 liters of hot water. The liquid is put on a slow fire for 3 hours, when the amount of water is reduced by half, a concentrated broth is obtained, which is stored in the refrigerator in a tightly closed container and consumed 3 times a day, 1 large spoon before meals. The drug is drunk for 70 days, after a rest of 2 weeks, in which you need to go through a series of examinations, with the appearance of improvements, the therapy is repeated.

    Hemlock

    Flowers are harvested in early June, after which they are poured with vodka in equal proportions and insisted for 18 days in a sealed container. The duration of administration is 40 days, the amount of fluid used is 1 drop per 100 ml of water. Daily dosage is increased by 1 drop, taken 1 hour before a meal, the course is repeated 2-3 times.

    Garlic with honey

    The restoration of strength is promoted by the use of 200 ml of garlic juice, with 500 gr. honey. Prepare the mixture for half an hour in a water bath, then take 1 large spoon 4 times a day and store in a cool place.

    Prepared fruits, in an amount of 100 gr. pour 2 liters of white wine. After, the mixture is cleaned in a dark, cool place for 14 days. Add 2 crushed garlic heads to the prepared liquid and insist for another week. Strained tincture is taken after meals, 50 g., 2 times a day.

    Potato flowers

    An infusion is made from dried plants, for which they take 1 large spoonful of mass, pour 500 ml of hot water and insist for 4 hours in a thermos. They consume 100 ml, 3 times a day, the total volume of tincture drunk per course should not exceed 4 liters.

    Some plants are toxic and can harm the patient or cause allergic reactions, therefore, before use, you need to consult a doctor and monitor the patient's condition.

    Side effects of medical treatment

    It is worth considering that the resection is carried out with the capture of at least 2 cm of healthy tissue in order to reduce the risks of the spread of affected cells. However, modern medicine has found a way to restore the aesthetic appearance, through plastic surgery, using the patient’s own material or using synthetics. After successful treatment, a man should be regularly observed by a doctor for 5 years.

    Forecast and preventive measures

    After a penectomy, in the absence of metastases, five-year survival in 70-80% of cases, the unfavorable prognosis is higher with ulcerative cancer, endophytic growth and regional metastasis.

    It is believed that circumcision of the foreskin can reduce the risk of the formation of cancer cells on the genitals, since the incidence among such men is lower. The data is due to the fact that circumcised people find it easier to monitor hygiene and, in case of formations, start timely treatment.

    Signs

    Penile cancer is a malignant tumor that penetrates and affects the tissues of the penis. Most often, the head and foreskin of the penis are affected.

    Penile cancer, causes:

    • Violations in the personal hygiene of the genitals. This leads to the accumulation of smegma under the foreskin, to constant irritation of the head and its microtraumatization.
    • Smoking
    • Oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus.
    • Frequent infectious genital diseases. This leads to the early onset of sexual life, frequent changes in sexual partners, unprotected sex.

    Penile Cancer Symptoms

    Most often, a cancerous tumor is located on the head, less often - on the foreskin, and very rarely on other anatomical structures of the penis. Visually, it can be defined as an incomprehensible formation, a shapeless stain, bubbles, cauliflower, a ball, a shapeless protrusion or something indescribable in words. Often in the initial stages, men do not experience any unpleasant sensations. With further growth of the tumor, symptoms such as pain, burning, itching, discomfort during sexual contact may appear. When urinating, burning, itching will also be observed, in the future, the presence of blood in the urine may be added to this. The tumor will increase in size, grow, may give metastases to other organs and tissues. Over time, the tumor ulcerates, begins to correct. With the progression of the malignant formation, infections can join, the symptoms of an infectious lesion will be added. These are all signs of penile cancer.

    Watch the video: Penile cancer basics (February 2020).

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