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All about acute prostatitis: types, causes, symptoms and treatments

Acute and chronic prostatitis are the most common male diseases. In clinical urology, these diseases are diagnosed in 30-60% of men who are of reproductive and working age (30-50 years).

Acute prostatitis is an inflammatory lesion of the prostate, accompanied by swelling and the formation of purulent foci in the tissues of the prostate. The disease is caused by exposure to various pathogenic microorganisms.

The disease does not require emergency treatment. However, ignoring acute inflammation can lead to the fact that it becomes chronic. Therefore, when the first symptoms occur, you should consult a doctor and get an appointment for treatment.

The causes of the disease

Most often, men over the age of 30 are affected. The causes of its occurrence are usually associated with the negative effects of various pathogenic microflora. Among the microorganisms that can lead to the appearance of symptoms of acute prostatitis, there are:

  • Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • Staphylococcus aureus,
  • enterococcus
  • Klebsiella
  • Proteus.

Many of the bacteria are in the body constantly. But in a normal state, they do not lead to the appearance of an inflammatory process. When penetrating the mucous membrane of the prostate gland through the urethra, they begin to multiply actively and cause a strong inflammatory process.

Some bacteria enter the body through unprotected intercourse. Therefore, men who do not use contraceptives and constantly change partners suffer most often from the disease.

There are non-infectious causes of the inflammatory process. Among them are:

  • inactive (sedentary) lifestyle,
  • overweight,
  • unhealthy composition and diet,
  • severe hypothermia,
  • insufficient sexual activity,
  • interrupted sexual intercourse,
  • smoking,
  • excessive drinking.

All these factors (individually or in combination) lead to the occurrence of stagnation of secretion in the prostate gland and blood in vessels located next to the organ.

The accumulation of secretions creates favorable conditions for the propagation of pathogenic microorganisms, which causes an inflammatory process. And in turn, the latter can cause a wide variety of complications from an abscess and prostate adenoma to prostate cancer. Often men have problems with potency and conception of children.

Symptoms and forms of the disease

When acute prostatitis occurs in men, the symptoms can be different. The severity of the manifestations of the disease depends on the stage and form of the inflammatory process in the prostate gland.

At the initial stage of the onset of the disease, a subacute form of the disease can be noted. Its signs are very poorly expressed. This is due to the low activity of pathogens or a good level of body resistance. The disease is very difficult to diagnose. Therefore, treatment may not be timely. And then the disease goes through several stages: catarrhal, follicular, parenchymal.

The clinical manifestations and symptoms of acute prostatitis correspond to the stages of the process. Common manifestations are pain, urination disorders and intoxication.

Catarrhal form

With the penetration of infection into the excretory ducts, a catarrhal form of acute prostatitis is observed. In this case, the pathogenic microflora affects the mucous membrane without penetrating into the deeper layers of the organ. Inflammatory foci appear in the prostate, it swells and increases in size. Also, compression of the urethra is noted. Often, such signs appear under the influence of the influenza virus.

Mild symptoms are still manifested in the form:

  • minor urination problems,
  • increased urination, especially at night,
  • feeling of heaviness in the perineum in a sitting position,
  • increase in body temperature to 37-38 ° C.

In this case, hyperthermia and subfebrile condition are sometimes completely absent.

Symptoms of acute catarrhal inflammation may themselves disappear after 14 days. However, treatment is not always required. However, in this case, the probability of the transition of the disease into a chronic course is high.

Treatment started in the catarrhal stage of acute prostatitis leads to recovery after 7-10 days.

Follicular form

In the absence of treatment for a catarrhal form of the disease, a follicular form appears. During this period, the spread of infection, the defeat of individual lobes of the prostate. Symptoms become pronounced and manifest as:

  • acute pain during urination
  • dull aching pains in the perineum, radiating to the penis, anus or sacrum,
  • difficulty in detecting due to severe pain,
  • increase in body temperature to 38 ° C,
  • complications of the urination process.

At this stage, a purulent lesion of the prostate is observed, as evidenced by the threads of pus in the urine.

With vigorous therapy of follicular prostatitis after 12 days, the complete elimination of the signs of the disease can be noted. Otherwise, he proceeds to the next more difficult stage.

Parenchymal form

The diffuse or parenchymal form is the final stage of acute prostatitis. The inflammatory process extends to the organ parenchyma, where purulent foci are formed. Sometimes a complete lesion is noted. Iron significantly increases in size.

Symptoms of this form are very pronounced:

  1. A man is tormented by severe pain in the perineum, which is transmitted to the head of the penis. Pain can weaken when lying down with legs pressed to the chest.
  2. Significant problems with urination associated with partial or complete retention of urine are noted.
  3. The patient may feel the presence of a foreign body in the rectum. In this case, bowel movements become painful. Frequent constipation, flatulence appear. With the development of reactive inflammation of the rectum, mucus is released from the anus.
  4. A significant rise in body temperature to 40 ° C, chills.

If treatment of acute prostatitis in the parenchymal stage is started on time, then the prognosis of a complete cure is favorable. Otherwise, the disease will go into a chronic course or a prostate abscess will form.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis and determination of the stage of acute inflammation of the prostate is carried out by a urologist and is based on a comprehensive physical, laboratory and instrumental examination of the patient.

Examination of the prostate through the rectum allows one to determine the size, texture, homogeneity, symmetry of the gland, pain reaction, foci of destruction, signs of purulent fusion of tissues.

Gland palpation in acute inflammation is performed very carefully without gross pressure and massaging movements.

In the obtained prostate secretion, an increase in the number of leukocytes and amyloid bodies, a decrease in the number of lecithin grains is detected.

Increased leukocyturia in the third portion of urine is also noted.

To isolate the causative agent of acute prostatitis and determine its causes, it is necessary to:

  • bacteriosis of urine and discharge of the urethra with an antibioticogram,
  • PCR studies of scraping,
  • blood culture for blood culture.

The nature and severity of dysuric disorders in the acute course of the disease is assessed using uroflowmetry.

Ultrasound of the prostate with mild pain can be performed transrectally, and in the case of severe pain, transabdominally. The shape, size of the gland, the presence of focal or diffuse changes are echoscopically evaluated, the stage of the acute inflammatory process is established.

When planning a surgical operation for destructive forms of acute prostatitis, it is advisable to have an MRI of the pelvic area.

Disease treatment

The leading role in the treatment of acute prostatitis belongs to etiotropic therapy. It is necessary to prescribe antimicrobial (antibacterial, antiviral, antitrichomonad, antimycotic) drugs as early as possible to suppress the reproduction of microorganisms in the gland and tissues of the urethra.

In order to reduce spasms and pain of urination, analgesics, antispasmodics, rectal suppositories with anesthesin or belladonna, thermal microclysters are prescribed. In the complex treatment of acute prostatitis, NSAIDs, enzymes, immunomodulators, vitamins, and solution infusions are used.

Physiotherapy for acute prostatitis is carried out after the acute symptoms subside.

Diet is important in therapy. Also during the treatment period it is worth drinking plenty of fluids. This helps ease urination and relieve pain.

Folk recipes can also help speed up the healing process.

Medications

Treatment of acute prostatitis is aimed at eliminating the infection that caused inflammation, as well as normalizing blood circulation and eliminating stagnation. It is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Hospitalization may be required for patients with a parenchymal form of the disease.

In acute infectious prostatitis, therapy necessarily includes taking antibiotics. The duration of therapy and the drugs used for this should be prescribed exclusively by a specialist.

Various antibiotics are effective against various microorganisms. Therefore, the doctor must evaluate the result of sowing and choose a tool that will help to cope with the infection that provoked the disease. Usually, treatment is carried out using:

Fluoroquinolones are recognized as the most effective for inflammation of the prostate. Therefore, they are often prescribed for the acute course of the disease.

In addition to antibacterial drugs, antihistamines (Zirtec, Zodak, Suprastin) and bacteria useful for the intestines (Lactobacterin, Bifidumbacterin, Linex) are prescribed.

During the treatment period, it is necessary to maintain immune protection at the proper level. For this purpose, the following drugs are prescribed:

Timalin (helps restore the tissue of the gland), Tactivin (indispensable in the presence of purulent foci), SIAM (good for bacterial damage).

Interferons may also be required. They are used in the form of rectal suppositories and intramuscular injections. Among them, high efficiency is noted:

Physiotherapy

After the symptoms of the acute stage of the disease subside, physiotherapeutic treatment can be completed. It is necessary to eliminate the inflammatory process, relieve swelling of the gland tissues, eliminate the pain syndrome, improve microcirculation and increase local immunity.

Common methods of exposure are:

  • rectal electrophoresis,
  • UHF therapy
  • Microwave therapy.

Prostate massage is also effective.

Diet

Diet for inflammation of the prostate gland is based on the principles of healthy eating and limiting the use of junk food. The diet is selected taking into account the severity of the manifestation of the disease and the characteristics of the body.

During the treatment period, you should abandon the use of:

  • fatty meat and fish,
  • salty and spicy foods
  • conservation products,
  • smoked meats
  • cabbage
  • legumes
  • strong tea and coffee,
  • alcohol.

It is worth enriching the diet with dairy products, cereals and juices.

In treating inflammation of the prostate, an element such as zinc plays an important role. It is contained in:

  • chicken meat
  • eggs
  • pumpkin seeds
  • walnuts.

During the treatment period, it is necessary to use a large amount of liquid. In this case, you must completely refuse to take alcohol. They inhibit the healing process, provoking various complications.

Folk recipes

Doctors believe that it is impossible to cure the disease with the help of folk remedies. But to alleviate the patient’s condition in the acute course of the disease with their help is completely real. After all, even many medications are made on the basis of medicinal plants, which are widely used in traditional medicine recipes.

A specialist can advise the use of decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs and plants. They are taken orally or added to the water when holding sedentary baths. Among the useful plants are:

  • aspen bark,
  • chestnuts
  • horsetail
  • daisy
  • coltsfoot,
  • oak bark.

It is worth remembering that some herbs can cause allergic reactions. Therefore, you should not appoint their appointment yourself. Otherwise, the appearance of various complications can be provoked.

The acute form of prostatitis is quite amenable to therapy. It is important to start it in a timely manner when the first symptoms occur. If delayed with therapy, the disease can acquire a chronic course. In this case, it will be much more difficult to cure it.

The main types of acute prostatitis

  • Infectious - It is caused most often by Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also fungi or protozoa can serve as the cause. The first sign is inflammation in the prostate gland,
  • Non-infectious - It can be caused by a number of reasons: constant stress, excessive sexual activity, or, conversely, long abstinence.

All of them cause blood stasis, which is accompanied by pain in the perineum and during urination, but no inflammation occurs.

  • Purulent - the most dangerous species, signs of this form are pus, which is secreted from the urethra and the high temperature of the patient.

Reasons for development

Acute prostatitis is an acute pathology of the prostate that develops as a result of an inflammatory-infectious process in an organ due to the penetration of pathogens into its tissue. The disease is characterized by the appearance of swelling of the gland, purulent contents in its tissues. This leads to the appearance of many unpleasant symptoms, a violation of the functionality of the organs of the genitourinary system.

The causes of acute prostatitis are many. In most cases, it provokes pathogenic microbes. Some of the microbes can exist in the body of a healthy person in a passive form on the skin or in the intestines. Under the influence of some factors, they are activated, penetrate into the tissues of the gland and actively multiply there. Often the disease appears due to an STD, for example, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea etc.

Also, acute prostatitis occurs as a complication. urethritis. Microbes enter through the ducts that open into the urethra. Also, the spread of bacteria from other organs of the genitourinary system often becomes the cause of prostatitis. Often, iron can be affected. during surgical procedures, catheterization, diagnostic measures.

Since there are a large number of blood vessels in the prostate gland, an infection can get here with a blood stream in the presence of chronic pathologies in the body, for example, tonsillitis, bronchitisetc. In the presence of anal fissures penetration of microbes into the prostate with lymph flow is possible.

But not always infections lead to the development of the disease. Stagnation in the vessels of the pelvic area that develop with prolonged abstinence from sexual intercourse or their huge number.

Stagnation is also associated with lack of physical activity, persistent constipation, alcoholism, varicose veins in the pelvic region, hypothermia.

Causes of acute inflammation in men

  1. Infection received during intercourse
  2. Blood stasis with improper organization of intimate life,
  3. Weak activity due to "sedentary" work,
  4. Permanent hypothermia due to the use of clothes and shoes out of season or extreme lifestyle,
  5. Stress, which can be both psychological and physical,
  6. Lack of vitamins in the body, as a result of which the immune system suffers,
  7. The presence of inflammatory processes in the body, such as the kidneys or intestines,
  8. Pelvic injury or radiation
  9. Disruption of the hormonal background.

In order to prevent the disease, it is necessary to undergo an examination by a specialist once every six months, even if there are no signs.

Symptoms of the acute stage of prostatitis:

  1. Painful and difficult urination
  2. Frequent urination, especially at night,
  3. Pain in the groin, pelvis, abdomen and lower back,
  4. The presence of blood or purulent discharge in urine or semen,
  5. Bowel obstruction (constipation),
  6. Frequent headaches, nausea and even vomiting, fatigue,
  7. Lack of sex drive,
  8. Pain during intercourse,
  9. Lack of orgasm.

The appearance of any of these signs should alert and suggest the idea of ​​visiting a urologist, and the sooner the better. Earlier treatment contributes to a quick diagnosis, and treatment will take less time.

What is acute prostatitis?

If during urination a man feels discomfort and even pain, you should immediately consult a doctor, because acute prostatitis is a disease of infectious etiology that causes inflammation of the prostate with subsequent formation of edema of the glandular tissue, the formation of purulent foci on it. If you do not pay attention to the signs of acute inflammation of the prostate, the pathological process can transform into a chronic form that is difficult to treat, and there is very little time for reflection - the transformation takes place in a matter of days.

However, more serious complications are possible than its transition to a chronic form. There is a risk of sepsis, a common infection of the blood and an ascending infection of the urinary tract with the development of pyelonephritis and cystitis. In these cases, the patient is urgently hospitalized, the condition can be critical. Although sepsis, as a complication, is rare, it can occur in patients in immunosuppressive states - intoxication, fever, severe symptoms, weakness. Therefore, blood culture is necessary to detect microorganisms.

Symptoms of acute prostatitis

Every man needs to know and remember the symptoms of acute prostatitis. Common signs of the disease appear:

  • A sharp pain when urinating.
  • Intoxication of the body.
  • Disorders of urination (intermittent, weak, strained stream).
  • Frequent urge to use the toilet at night.

These are external symptoms of prostatitis, but with a deeper examination in the urine, white blood cells, traces of mucus and pus in the secretory fluid of the prostate gland are found. On palpation, a dense, enlarged organ is palpated, pressing will be painful. Further development of the inflammatory process is characterized by severity and pain in the perineum, extending to the penis, sacrum and rectum. As a result, it becomes difficult for the patient to empty the bladder and defecate due to severe pain. Body temperature can rise to 38 ° C.

Causes of Acute Prostatitis

Since this disease is bacterial inflammatory in nature, the following infectious agents are the causes of acute pancreatitis:

  1. Gram-negative - Klebsiella, E. coli, Proteus.
  2. Gram-positive - enterococci, staphylococci, streptococci.
  3. Urogenital - trichomoniasis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gonorrhea, candidiasis, mycoplasmosis.

Microbial microflora penetrate into the glandular tissue of the prostate, as a rule, by the transcanalicular route (through the urethra and excretory ducts of the prostate gland). With cystitis, the infection migrates to the prostate from the bladder. Other possible pathways for bacteria to open during endourethral manipulations (catheter placement, urethral bougienage, cystoscopy, urethroscopy). Pathogens migrate to the prostate from distant pathogenic foci with caries, sinusitis, tonsillitis, cholecystitis, pyoderma, bronchitis.

There is a high probability of infection from the intestine with proctitis, hemorrhoidal fissures, colitis. Non-infectious factors that can cause an attack of prostatitis are congestive (congestive) venous phenomena in the pelvic area and impaired drainage of the acini of the gland. Congestion can be caused by irregular or, on the contrary, excessive sexual activity, interruption of sexual intercourse, a sedentary lifestyle, frequent constipation, frequent alcohol intoxication, varicose veins of the pelvis, hypothermia.

Conservative treatment

Such treatment includes:

  • Antibiotics
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Painkillers
  • Antispasmodics,
  • Vitamins
  • Immunity boosting drugs,

The price for a course of treatment is directly proportional to the complexity of the course of the disease and the presence of complications. It consists of the cost of drugs and the procedures recommended by the doctor.

The course of taking antibiotics for acute prostatitis amid the development of infection is inevitable, since only they are able to completely deal with bacteria.

In second place for use are antimicrobial drugs. In the case where the cause lies in an infectious disease (such as lupus, pneumonia or chlamydia), a course of antibiotics of the appropriate spectrum of action is prescribed.

When prescribing drugs, the doctor must take into account the possibility of allergic reactions and renal failure. Together with antibiotics, it is necessary to drink drugs that help normalize the intestinal microflora.

Note that antibiotics are prescribed only for the treatment of prostatitis caused by bacteria. If the cause is viruses, it is treated with antiviral drugs.

With infectious prostatitis, a course of antibiotics is prescribed, which lasts 1 to 3 months, antispasmodics and anti-inflammatory drugs.

As a supplement, you can use decoctions and infusions of various useful herbs, which also relieve inflammation and alleviate symptoms, are well absorbed and do not harm the body. Before using medicinal extracts, consult your doctor.

Non-infectious prostatitis is treated with warm salt or herbal baths, prostate massage and proper nutrition. To relieve symptoms, painkillers with cramping drugs are prescribed.

The Internet beckons with advertising, and drugstore shelves are full of an abundance of drugs at various prices. Remember, do not trust your health to anyone but a competent specialist!

Forms of Acute Prostatitis

The clinical development of this disease is considered in three stages, which at the same time are forms of acute pancreatitis. It:

  1. The first stage is the catarrhal form.
  2. The second stage is the follicular form.
  3. The third stage is the parenchymal form.

Acute prostatitis in men begins with catarrhal inflammation, which is characterized by the expansion of acini, the occurrence of edema of the glandular tissue and, as a result, an increase in organ size. Excretory ducts of the prostate glands, which open into the posterior urethra, are actively involved in the inflammatory process. Lobes and ducts of the prostate gland become inflamed, their contractility is impaired, they contract and clog, this can make secretion of the prostate secretion difficult.

At the catarrhal stage, the pathological process stops on the mucous layers and does not go deeper. In the process of progression, the disease spreads to the entire prostate gland. Follicular acute bacterial prostatitis develops. An analysis of urine reveals pus. Gland tissues are destructively changed, swelling continues to increase. The follicular form is still amenable to relatively easy treatment.

Further, a parenchymal form of the disease develops, the outcome of which may be a prostate abscess, that is, chronic prostatitis. Therefore, symptoms such as:

  • Increase in body temperature to 39 ° C and above.
  • Manifestations of intoxication: weakness, chills, thirst, lack of appetite.
  • Frequent urge to the toilet for little need is accompanied by throbbing sharp pains.
  • Inability to empty the bladder.
  • Flatulence.
  • Tenesmus.
  • Constipation.
  • Isolation of mucus from the anus.

Diagnosis of acute prostatitis

At the first suspicion of inflammation of the prostate, hurry to the doctor. Correct and comprehensive diagnosis of acute prostatitis is very important for quick and successful treatment. The doctor will first analyze the anamnesis, specify when pain occurs in the perineum, whether they intensify or decrease with ejaculation, urination, defecation. Be sure the doctor should study the patient's medical history: what diseases were transferred, whether there were sexually transmitted infections.

A urologist will palpate the external genitalia to determine developmental pathologies, visible signs of prostatitis, and a rectal examination - palpation of the prostate gland through the anus. To create a complete clinical picture, it will be necessary to undergo such examinations:

  1. Urinalysis to determine the level of white blood cells and the presence of purulent threads.
  2. Blood analysis.
  3. Backseat smear - the contents and scraping from the urethra are taken to determine the growth of bacteria and their sensitivity to antibiotics.
  4. Determination of urine velocity (uroflowmetry).
  5. Ultrasound of the prostate to detect diffuse changes in the gland and its abscess formation.
  6. A blood test to determine the presence of pathogens of diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia.
  7. PCR diagnostics.

Surgical intervention

In the absence of pain, the doctor may suspect the development of an abscess. In this case, surgery is performed to eliminate the areas in which it occurs. Often use puncture drainage of the abscess. In severe and extreme cases, organ removal is performed.

The surgeon can use one of the following methods:

  • TRUP (transurethral resection) involves the removal of the internal part of the organ. Used most often
  • Prostatectomy involves partial or complete removal of the organ through an incision in the lower abdomen,
  • Laser operation. In this case, the affected areas of the organ are removed with a laser,
  • Drainage abscess carried through the rectum. A drainage is introduced into the incision, through which pus is pumped out,
  • To facilitate the removal of urine transurethral incision in the organ.

When the tissue structure of the gland is restored, its functions normalize, the secretion of the prostate normalizes its composition, the pathogen will be completely eliminated from the body, we can talk about the cure of prostatitis.

Forms of inflammation

Acute prostatitis develops in three stages, they are also forms of the disease:

  • catarrhal
  • follicular
  • parenchymal.

Catarrhal form also known as subacute prostatitis. At this stage, changes occur in the mucous layer of the organ lobules. This is accompanied by an increasing swelling of the prostate gland, as a result of which there are symptoms of impaired urination due to compression of the bladder and urethra by an enlarged organ.

The second form is follicular inflammation, while the pathological process extends to the follicles of the prostate gland. At this stage, the development of acute follicular prostatitis with the formation of foci of suppuration in the lobules of the organ is possible.

The parenchymal stage is accompanied by the involvement of the parenchymal tissue of the prostate gland in the inflammatory process. In this case, multiple small abscesses are formed. A complication of acute prostatitis is an abscess of the prostate. Its development is due to the fusion of small foci of purulent inflammation into a large one and the formation of a cavity filled with pus.

It is a prostate abscess that is a likely dangerous complication. It can open itself, then purulent necrotic masses can not get out of the body, and the infection spreads to the urethra, perineum, and rectum. An autopsy of the prostate abscess can lead to the development of sepsis due to the purulent mass entering the general bloodstream.

When an abscess ruptures in the prostate, purulent masses enter nearby organs

Symptoms of acute prostatitis

In acute prostatitis, the symptoms are pronounced, due to the presence of purulent foci, the disease is accompanied by severe intoxication of the whole organism. Each stage of the disease is characterized by specific signs. It is important to understand that the sooner a patient visits a doctor, the easier it is to cure the disease, so you need to know the symptoms of each form of acute inflammation of the prostate and be able to detect them in time.

Symptoms of a catarrhal form:

  • heaviness and pain in the perineum,
  • feeling of pressure and fullness in the rectum,
  • urination at night,
  • pain in the urethra after urination.

Discomfort after urination is caused by irritation and compression of the urethra.

For the follicular form of the disease, more pronounced symptoms are characteristic:

  • constant dull aching pain in the pelvic region, giving into the anus,
  • bladder cramps
  • violation of bowel movements due to pain,
  • increase in body temperature to 38 C.

At this stage, the prostate is greatly enlarged, which provokes irritation of the pain receptors of adjacent organs. This is accompanied by severe pain in the perineum, scrotum, anus, lower abdomen. During defecation or urination, the pain intensifies many times, blood may be released. Against this background, acute urinary retention often develops due to a sharp increase in the tone of the bladder. This condition is dangerous by infection of the kidneys and requires urgent hospitalization and the subsequent installation of a catheter to remove accumulated urine.

Symptoms of acute prostatitis

The follicular form is accompanied by symptoms of general malaise. The man feels very tired, emotionally overwhelmed and depressed due to constant discomfort, performance and sleep quality suffer. Often follicular prostatitis is accompanied by insomnia due to frequent urination.

Treatment of acute prostatitis at this stage takes a long time, but the prognosis, as it is, is favorable. With timely medical attention, prostatitis can be cured without the risk of complications.

The acute parenchymal form of the disease is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • a strong increase in temperature to 40 C,
  • body intoxication,
  • general weakness
  • loss of appetite and nausea
  • inability to urinate
  • discharge of pus from the anus when trying to empty the intestines.

The disease is accompanied by acute excruciating pain that spreads to the entire pelvis. In some cases, blood is found in the urine. The parenchymal form of the disease is very dangerous and can lead to acute stagnation of urine, infection of the kidneys, and development of an abscess of the prostate gland.

Treatment principle

Treatment of acute prostatitis is carried out mainly by conservative methods. How to treat acute prostatitis - it depends on the form of the disease and the type of pathogen. In the absence of complications, such as an abscess of the prostate gland, therapy is carried out using:

  • antibiotics
  • non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
  • antispasmodics and analgesics,
  • immunomodulators.

The leading role in the treatment is given to antibiotic therapy. When choosing a drug, the doctor takes into account the form of the disease and the patient’s medical history, including the number of episodes of acute prostatitis. The bacterial culture of prostate secretion or the analysis of a PCR smear from the urethra helps to find the optimal drugs for the treatment of acute prostatitis. Based on these analyzes, it is possible not only to identify the type of pathogen, but also to check the resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to the action of various antibiotics.

Antibiotics can be taken in the form of tablets or injections. What and how to treat acute prostatitis is decided by the doctor, after analyzing the patient's complaints. I usually act on the principle that the sharper the symptoms, the higher the dose of antibiotic needed for treatment. In especially severe cases, it is possible to treat in a hospital with injection of antibacterial drugs.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as symptomatic therapy to relieve swelling and pain. In most cases, Diclofenac injections are prescribed. It is impossible to use drugs for rectal administration (suppositories) until the inflammatory process is stopped.

In case of violation of the emptying of the bladder, medications from the group of alpha-blockers (Omnic) can be prescribed. The action of such drugs is aimed at relaxing the muscles of the bladder and urethra. Since drugs directly affect receptors, pills act very quickly, and relief comes after a few hours.

Along with taking antibiotics, the doctor prescribes drugs to stimulate the body's immune defenses. This allows you to accelerate recovery and minimizes the risk of complications.

After a course of antibiotic therapy, phytopreparations are prescribed to restore the normal functioning of the prostate gland. Such drugs include suppositories Prostatitilen, Vitaprost, suppositories with propolis, pumpkin oil or ichthyol. The purpose of such treatment is to restore trophic prostate gland, increase local immunity and prevent the re-development of the disease.

The choice of the exact treatment regimen for acute prostatitis in men remains with the attending physician. Notice the pronounced signs and symptoms of acute prostatitis, each man should consult a urologist, but not try to self-medicate.

The optimal treatment regimen will be selected by the doctor

Causes of inflammation

Acute prostatitis is a common disease of the genitourinary system. In clinical andrology, it is diagnosed in 35-50% of men of childbearing age. Acute inflammation of the gland is accompanied by:

  • decreased fertility
  • dysuria (violation of urination),
  • sexual disorders.

The causes of acute prostatitis are diverse, but in 9 out of 10 cases, bacteria become the causative agents of infection:

  • enterococcus
  • E. coli
  • Proteus,
  • enterobacter
  • streptococcus,
  • Klebsiella
  • Staphylococcus aureus.

More rarely, acute inflammation of the gland is provoked by the causative agents of urogenital diseases - candidiasis, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis. The infection enters the organ in an ascending or descending way - from the urethra or seminal tubercles.

Andrologists and urologists identify a number of factors that provoke acute damage to the prostate:

  • pyelonephritis,
  • immunodeficiency conditions
  • cystitis,
  • pelvic injuries
  • infectious colitis
  • hypothermia
  • cholecystitis,
  • non-observance of personal hygiene,
  • radiation therapy,
  • urethral stones
  • irregular sex life
  • urethritis,
  • chronic sinusitis,
  • pyoderma,
  • stagnation of blood in the pelvic organs.
The likelihood of infection of the genitourinary system increases with endourethral manipulations - cystoscopy, ureter catheterization, urethral bougienage.

Stagnation of venous blood in the vessels of the pelvis is fraught with inflammation of the prostate gland. Therefore, men with an inactive lifestyle are prone to prostatitis.

Classification

During an acute illness, 3 forms are distinguished, which are its main stages:

  • Catarrhal. Inflammation is accompanied by swelling of the lobules of the gland, as a result of which it increases. When squeezing the urethra, there are problems with urination.
  • Follicular. Severe edema leads to stagnation of mucus and pus in the follicles of the glandular tissue, due to which the inflammation only intensifies. Acute follicular prostatitis is manifested by the cuts when the urea is emptied.
  • Parenchymal In the absence of therapy, parenchymal tissue is involved in inflammation. Then the pain spreads to the genitals, sacrum and suprapubic area.

When many focal ulcers merge in the lobules of the organ, an abscess occurs - an abscess. In the case of further accumulation of pus, it opens into the intestine, urea, urethra.

Possible complications

Timely treatment of prostatitis leads to a complete recovery. But ignoring the problem is fraught with its transition to a sluggish form.

Possible consequences of acute prostatitis:

  • purulent urethritis,
  • impotence
  • pyelonephritis,
  • abscess lobules of the gland,
  • purulent cystitis,
  • sclerosis (wrinkling) of the prostate,
  • infertility,
  • psychological disorders.

Acute parenchymal and abscessed prostatitis leads to purulent fusion of surrounding tissues. It is dangerous proctitis and bacterial sepsis - blood poisoning by microbial infection.

Precautions and Prohibitions During Treatment

In acute inflammation of the prostate gland in men, it is necessary to adhere to a number of recommendations.

The fact is that during ejaculation, along with sperm, a prostatic secret is secreted, in which some of the pathogenic agents are retained. Unprotected sex can cause a partner to become infected. At the same time, due to the greatly weakened immunity in a man, even contact with a constant partner can lead to poor health as a result of an inadequate reaction of the body to the healthy microflora of the female vagina.

In acute prostatitis, it is strictly forbidden to warm the prostate gland and even take a hot bath. Heating the area around the prostate improves blood circulation; as a result, an infection with blood flow can spread throughout the body. At the same time, heating of foci of suppuration leads to their increase. With an abscess of the prostate, exposure to heat can cause it to break through.

In acute inflammation, prostate massage or any other irritating effect on the rectum is prohibited. A diet for prostatitis is necessary to avoid the development of constipation, which can worsen well-being and complicate the course of the disease.

You should not try to treat acute prostatitis on your own and apply alternative methods until the inflammation has been stopped with antibiotics. Folk remedies can be used at the recovery stage after acute inflammation is removed, but not earlier, and they should not replace conservative drug therapy.

Reviews of men who have had acute prostatitis warn: the earlier treatment is started, the faster the disease passes. It is important to contact a urologist in a timely manner, having discovered the first symptoms of the disease.

Diagnostic Methods

Prostatitis is manifested by vivid symptoms, so it is easily diagnosed by a urologist. For the stage and causative agent of the disease are assigned:

  • Ultrasound of the lobules of the gland. Acute inflammation is indicated by increased echogenicity of the organ, an increase in its size and a fuzzy outline.
  • Bacteriological culture of a smear from the urethra. The test results determine the causative agent of prostatitis, its sensitivity to antimicrobial agents.
  • Microscopic analysis of glandular secretion. During the study, the concentration of leukocytes, red blood cells and bacteria in the prostatic juice is determined.
According to the diagnostic results, prostatitis is distinguished from other diseases of the genitourinary system - syphilis, adenoma, prostate cancer.

Prevention

No man is immune from infectious inflammation of the prostate, regardless of age and state of health. Preventive measures will help protect the prostate gland from acute prostatitis in men. Among them:

  • timely treatment of any infectious diseases,
  • hygiene
  • practice protected sexual intercourse,
  • balanced diet.

It is important to avoid hypothermia and protect the pelvic organs from damage. It will not be superfluous to take measures to strengthen the immune system - a contrast shower, taking vitamins, regular physical activity.

Regular sex life will help to avoid prostatitis, since during ejaculation, metabolic processes in the prostate gland improve. A healthy man is recommended to have sex 3-4 times a week.

The absence of stress, bad habits, a balanced diet and regular physical activity - all this is the guarantee of the health of the prostate gland.

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Antibiotics and other medicines

Conservative therapy kills pathogens, relieves pain and restores urination. In acute bacterial prostatitis, antibiotics of several groups are used:

  • fluoroquinolones - Sparfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Zanocin,
  • macrolides - Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Azitral.

To eliminate the symptoms are used:

  • diuretics (Urakton, Diuver) - prevent stagnation of urine in the bladder and stimulate urination,
  • non-narcotic analgesics (Ibuprofen, Indomethacin) - relieve pain and inflammation, lower body temperature,
  • alpha-adrenergic blockers (Prazosin, Tamsulosin) - improve urination with swelling of the prostate gland,
  • immunostimulants (Immunal, Pyrogenal) - increase resistance to bacteria that provoke acute inflammation,
  • multivitamins (Centrum, Biorhythm) - eliminate vitamin and mineral deficiency, stimulate the immune system,
  • osmotic laxatives (Normolact, Gutalaks) - soften the stool and prevent constipation.
Acute parenchymal prostatitis is accompanied by severe pain in the rectum. To improve well-being, analgesic rectal suppositories are used - Relif, Anestezol, Procto-Glivenol.

Physiotherapeutic procedures

After the acute symptoms subside, they resort to hardware treatment:

  • rectal electrophoresis - relieves inflammation, swelling and pain,
  • Microwave therapy - accelerates the healing of affected tissues, stimulates local immunity,
  • UHF-therapy - heats tissues, enhancing microcirculation of blood in the prostate gland,
  • prostate massage - improves blood circulation in the affected organ, prevents stagnation of prostatic juice.

If acute inflammation of the lobules of the gland leads to urinary retention, urinary catheterization is performed.

Power Features

The diet is aimed at sparing the organs of the genitourinary system, increasing immunity and restoring bowel function. Healthy foods and dishes include:

  • seafood,
  • lean meat
  • vegetable oil,
  • cottage cheese,
  • kefir,
  • gray bread
  • buckwheat porridge,
  • dried fruits,
  • diet soups.

The diet must include foods high in zinc - beef, pumpkin seeds, chicken. With stagnation of urine limit the consumption of carbonated drinks and alcohol. Fruit drinks, rosehip broth, dried fruit compotes, alkaline mineral waters (without gas) are recommended as a drink.

Treatment with folk remedies

Alternative medicine eliminates acute symptoms, but does not destroy the causative agents of prostatitis. To facilitate well-being, apply:

  • Infusion of hazel. 10 g of chopped leaves are brewed in ½ liter of water. Insist in a thermos 1.5-2 hours. Filtered infusion is drunk 100 ml 4 times a day.
  • A decoction of parsley seeds. 4 tsp seeds are crushed and boiled in 300 ml of water for 4 minutes. Otssuzhenny and strained broth take 3-4 tbsp. l up to 5 times a day.
  • Honey candles. 2 tsp honey mixed with egg yolk. Add 3 tbsp. l flour (it is advisable to use rye flour). Candles with a diameter of 1-1.5 cm are formed from the pasty mass. They are left in the freezer for 2 hours. Use candles after a cleansing enema no more than 2 times a day.

Self-medication is dangerous allergic reactions and poor health. Therefore, before using traditional medicine, you should consult a urologist.

Precautions and lifestyle during treatment

In acute prostate damage, bed rest and sexual rest are recommended. To prevent complications, you should:

  • Avoid hypothermia
  • observe personal hygiene
  • refuse to visit the bath,
  • exclude physical activity,
  • wear loose underwear,
  • give up alcohol
  • Avoid casual sexual intercourse.
To avoid relapse of prostatitis, it is necessary to timely treat urogenital infections.

Twice a year, you should drink zinc-containing dietary supplements and multivitamins. Men with problematic immunity need to visit a urologist twice a year.

Therapy prognosis

Competent and reasonable drug therapy in 99% of cases leads to recovery. In acute abscessed prostatitis, the prognosis worsens. In the case of purulent lesions of the gland and surrounding tissues, surgical treatment is recommended.

Possible postoperative complications include:

  • temporary erectile dysfunction,
  • urination disorders
  • decreased fertility.

After the pain subsides, the men do not rush to see a urologist. As a result, prostatitis passes into a sluggish form. It does not respond well to conservative therapy. In most cases, they achieve remission, but with hypothermia and genitourinary infections, the disease recurs.

Acute prostatitis is a male disease that is caused by bacteria in 9 out of 10 cases. Timely therapy cures within 7-10 days. But with advanced prostatitis, antibiotic therapy is less effective. Therefore, at the first manifestations of the disease, you need to consult a doctor.

Surgical treatment of acute prostatitis

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Such treatment is necessary:

  • With the development of an abscess - drainage through the wall of the canal or rectum,
  • In acute urinary retention, puncture and withdrawal of excess through the tube.

Surgery for prostatitis is a rather rare occurrence. They are resorted to when other treatment methods do not give the expected positive result. The surgeon removes the inflamed area of ​​the prostate gland. The likelihood that a complete cure will occur is rather low. In addition, a large proportion of complications - a complete loss of potency.

Also, surgical intervention, can be prescribed in the presence of stones in the prostate gland. In all other cases, despite the length of the process and the high cost of treatment, other methods are chosen.

Treatment of acute prostatitis

After a thorough diagnosis, they begin treatment of acute prostatitis. It is based on antibiotic therapy, the purpose of which is to suppress infectious pathogens. Additionally, conservative treatment of prostatitis includes the use of:

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Means that improve blood circulation.
  • Painkillers and antispasmodics.
  • Drugs that support metabolic processes in the prostate.
  • Multivitamins.
  • Herbal remedies.
  • Immunomodulators

The advanced forms of inflammation of the prostate with the appearance of purulent foci require surgical intervention. Transurethral (through the wall of the urethra) or transrectal (through the wall of the anus) drainage of abscessed sites is performed. Surgery may be required in case of pathological urinary retention. A puncture epicystostomy is performed - an incision is made in the abdominal cavity, into which a tube is inserted to divert urine.

Folk remedies

Good help to conservative treatment are infusions and extracts of herbs such as:

They can be found in any pharmacy or prepared independently. These herbs have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and regenerative properties. In addition, they help normalize urination, reduce pain and prevent the transition of an acute stage to a chronic one.

Before use, consult a specialist.

Drugs

Treatment of acute prostatitis in men with drugs (tablets, injections) is the basis of successful therapy. With properly prescribed antibiotic therapy, the infection can be overcome in a few days. However, it is recommended to continue treatment for four weeks to achieve complete eradication of the pathogenic microflora. Medications used for the disease are:

  • Etiotropic (antibiotics) - destroying pathogens.
  • Pathogenetic (NSAIDs) - eliminating congestion in the prostate.
  • Symptomatic (analgesics, antipyretics) - relieving pain, muscle spasms of the organ, other symptoms.

To treat inflammation of the prostate, the doctor can prescribe a complex of drugs, which will include:

  • Injections - facilitate the penetration of drugs into the tissues of the body in a short time.
  • Suppositories (rectal) - analgesic, antibacterial effect.
  • Instillations - drug delivery to the prostate through the urethral opening.
  • Microclysters with decoctions of herbs.
  • Broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs if a specific pathogen is not defined.

Antibiotics for acute prostatitis

The main causative agents of prostatitis are pathogenic bacteria that cause inflammation in the tissues of the prostate gland. Therefore, antibiotics for acute prostatitis are the basis of treatment and are prescribed only after tests for the sensitivity of microflora. Antimicrobial agents used for inflammation are divided into the following groups:

  1. Fluoroquinolones - Ciprofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprolet, Nolitsin, Tavanic, Levofloxacin.
  2. Penicillins - Amoxicillin, Ampioks, Augmentin, Oxacillin, Carbenicillin, Amoxiclav.
  3. Cephalosporins - Ceftriaxone.
  4. Macrolides - Rulide, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Sumamed, Oleandomycin.
  5. Tetracyclines - Tetracycline, Doxycycline, Unidox Solutab, Oxytetracycline, Minocycline.
  6. Aminoglycosides - Kanamycin, Gentamicin, 5-NOC.

Sex with prostatitis

If an ailment occurs, men are at a crossroads - have sex or not? There is no desire, the orgasm is gone, the pain intensifies. What to do?

With severe symptoms, you should take a short break in your intimate life, drink more fluid and relax. Sometimes a man will not be able to do anything physically purely because of a lack of erection and loss of sex drive. In addition, the acute stage is most often caused by sexually transmitted infections, so this is extremely unsafe for the partner.

As soon as the disease subsides and the bacteria are killed, it is necessary to resume regular sexual intercourse, which will favorably affect men's health and help cure prostatitis to the end, but it is necessary to protect yourself. The fact is that with orgasm, pathogens of infection come out with sperm.

In no case should you refuse sex during the entire course of treatment. This will lead to stagnation of blood and even greater development of inflammation.

Regular sex is an excellent disease prevention.

Consequences of acute prostatitis in men

Acute prostatitis is a very insidious disease that can trigger a number of serious complications. Even if the patient begins treatment at the initial stage of the pathology, there is always a risk of chronic prostatitis. Especially if a man continues to lead an unhealthy lifestyle.

Launched forms of acute prostatitis provoke the following complications:

  • Abscess of the prostate with opening of abscesses, blood poisoning and death. Such a pathology may require removal of the prostate.
  • Sclerosis of the prostate, that is, the formation of scars on the background of a long inflammatory process. It leads to the fact that the gland generally ceases to function.
  • Stones in the prostate that provoke stagnation in the gland.
  • Prostate cyst. Provokes organ enlargement, may rupture.
  • Inflammatory processes of seminal vesicles, seminal tubercle, as a result, the formation of adhesions in the vas deferens.
  • Infertility.
  • Impotence and various kinds of erectile dysfunctions.

Complications can be avoided by observing preventive measures.

Proper nutrition for acute prostatitis

An important role in the treatment of the disease is played by the diet, compliance with which positively affects the overall dynamics.

The diet should consist of:

  1. Porridge
  2. Boiled vegetables,
  3. Baked fruit,
  4. Eggs (no more than 2 per day)
  5. Lean meat or fish, but do not abuse,
  6. Leafy vegetables
  7. Bran
  8. Nuts
  9. Dairy and fermented milk products,
  10. A sufficient amount of ordinary drinking water (1.5 - 2 liters)

Under a strict lock are:

  • Alcohol,
  • Tea and coffee,
  • Fatty food,
  • Flour
  • Spice,
  • Canned food and smoked meats,
  • Offal,
  • Mushrooms and legumes.

Proper and balanced nutrition restores the body’s depleted reserves of the disease, helps to restore strength, and improve immunity.

Conclusion

Acute prostatitis is a formidable disease. If a person wants not only to preserve male power for the next few years, but also to prevent chronic pain, impaired urination, he should think about measures to prevent acute prostatitis from a young age. And with the appearance of any pain in the pelvis, be sure to be examined and undergo a course of treatment prescribed by a doctor.

Watch the video: PROSTATITIS Symptoms, Causes & Treatments (February 2020).

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